A different perspective of Hollow Earth theory is proposed by William F. Lyon and Marshall B. Bardner. Lyon, in The Hollow Globe (1871), argued that the earth was created by spirits, not one god, and these spirits maintain its orbit, tides, and all-natural phenomena. The goal of these spirits was to expand the good energy into dark, empty spaces. The spirits created many cosmos through their expansion of good and light energies. These same spirits also compelled Anglo-Americans to win the American Revolution, conquer the Native Americans and build the railroad.
Gardner, in A Journey to the Earth’s Interior (1913), stated there were not concentric spheres in the interior of the earth, as Halley argued, but a second sun. Furthermore, animals that were extinct on the surface flourished in the inner earth. Gardner also states that the center of earth’s gravity is not in the center of the planet but in its crust, allowing water to adhere to the crust above and below the poles.